- Recent Advances in the Neurochemistry of Epilepsy
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- Advances in the Neurochemistry and Neuropharmacology of Tourette Syndrome, Volume - 1st Edition
Feb , Ivan Izquierdo was born in Buenos Aires in and naturalized Brazilian in Haiyan Wu completed her Ph. Feb , Rome, Italy. Call for Submissions. Experts Advisory Board Distinguished Speakers. Dr Ivan Izquierdo. Nasrullah, Ferdous Wahid, Mst. Sohanur Rahman, Md.
Tanjir Islam, Md. Shah Amran and Mohamed M. Published: 15 January Abstract: Neurochemistry refers to the chemical processes that occur in the brain and nervous system. This section of study determines how neurochemicals influence the network of neural operation.
The brain transfers numerous chemical information via neurons to communicate. The distinction between synaptic and non-synaptic transmission is a general property of amino acid and other neurotransmitter systems in the mammalian brain.
Recent Advances in the Neurochemistry of Epilepsy
In recent years it has been increasingly evident that glutamate, GABA and glycine receptors, in addition to their subsynaptic localisation, are also expressed extrasynaptically. Metabotropic glutamate receptors are mainly located extrasynaptically. Non-synaptically localised AMPA receptors have been found in CA1 pyramidal neurons, in the dendritic layers of the hippocampus and in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus, where pyramidal cell somata, dendrites and spines contain a large number of extrasynaptic receptors.
Some of them are probably activated during periods of intense stimulation, and may play a role in neuronal synchronisation.
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In addition, recent research on receptor mobility shows that glutamate and GABA receptors are able to move between synaptic and extrasynaptic locations. The number and composition of glutamate and GABA receptors in or outside the synapse can be modulated by several factors.
For instance, the localisation of NMDA receptors at synaptic sites is achieved through interactions between their intracellular domains, cytoskeletal elements and other cytoplasmically located submembrane proteins in the post-synaptic density, many of them scaffolding proteins. F-actin may be responsible for targeting NMDA receptors to synaptic sites because treatment with actin-depolymerising agents selectively reduces the numbers of synaptic NMDA-receptor clusters without affecting non-synaptic clusters.
In addition to lateral movements, GABA and glutamate receptors also undergo significant rates of constitutive endocytosis and recycling, which can directly modulate the efficacy of synaptic transmission. For GABA A receptors, synaptic confinement is at least partially facilitated by the postsynaptic scaffold protein gephyrin, which has recently been shown to decrease the diffusion rates of GABA A receptors, promoting their accumulation at synapses.
Recent evidence of a role for extrasynaptic glutamate receptors in neuronal synchronisation and neuronal excitability involved in epileptic seizures has been reviewed.
Glutamate released from astrocytes triggers slow NMDA responses, resulting in the synchronised activation of pyramidal neuron assemblies. Recent data on gene expression in human temporal lobe epilepsy are consistent with an increased glutamate release from astrocytes.
Advances in the Neurochemistry and Neuropharmacology of Tourette Syndrome, Volume - 1st Edition
It is probable that changes in synaptic activity may modify the number, distribution and subunit composition of extrasynaptic amino acid receptors, and vice versa. Alterations in cross-talking among synaptic and non-synaptic transmission may be involved in several pathologies, including epilepsy. The ERK kinases are abundantly expressed in the central nervous system, and are activated in response to various physiological stimuli associated with synaptic activity and plasticity, most notably calcium influx and neurotrophins, but also during pathological events such as brain ischaemia and epilepsy.
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The biochemical study of the ion channels interactome such as actin-dependent receptor-channel anchoring, related transduction pathways and many other post-synaptic density PSD proteins seems to be an important approach to the neuropathology and neuropharmacology of epilepsy. It seems clear now that neurotransmitter receptors and synapses are not fixed structures, but rather are subjected to continuous changes and replacements. Receptor and enzyme location seems to be a decisive factor for the transmission of neural messages among neurons, and it is probable that changes in receptor location may be involved in learning associated plasticity changes as well as in some brain diseases, including the epilepsies.