Manual The Ethics of Science: An Introduction (Philosophical Issues in Science)

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Also from SAGE Publishing
  1. The role of ethics in science
  2. Philosophy of Biology
  3. Ecology and Society: Philosophical Issues in Ecology: Recent Trends and Future Directions
  4. Science, Ethics And Society: Philosophical Issues (Module)

With its newly achieved autonomy from external authority, philosophy appealed to the authority of reason or sense experience, giving rise to opposed theories of thought, Rationalism and Empiricism. This course will examine the epistemological dispute between the two schools and the metaphysical constructions that incorporated the different epistemological views. The course will conclude with an examination of the way Immanuel Kant attempted to bring rationalism and empiricism to a synthesis.

HPS100 Lecture 03: Scientific Method

There will be two examinations, mid term and final, and one substantial paper. Prerequisite: Phil or consent of instructor. In-depth study of selected topics in general philosophy of science or philosophy of physical, biological, or social science. Topics may include: theories of explanation, prediction, and confirmation; semantics of scientific language; reductionism; space, time and relativity; philosophical issues about quantum mechanics; philosophical issues about life sciences e.

This course prepares students to recognize ethical problems that commonly arise in the engineering and scientific workplace, and to find, evaluate, use, and strengthen institutional supports for acting on ethical concerns. The course examines issues and practices in industry and at universities and other research facilities.

The role of ethics in science

The course will address questions such as: What are the criteria of fairness in crediting contributions to research? How safe is safe enough? What is a profession? What are professional responsibilities, and how do they change over time? What is negligence in science and engineering practice and research? What is research misconduct?

When is ignorance culpable? What is intellectual property and what protections does it deserve? When is biological testing of workers justified? What are responsible ways of raising concerns, and what supports to good organizations give for raising concerns? What treatment counts as harassment or as an expression of prejudice. What are good means for controlling them? What responsibilities for environmental protection do engineers and scientists have?

What protections for human research subjects are warranted? What use of animals in research is justified?

Philosophy of Biology

Ethical theory can be understood as dividing up into three general categories: metaethics, normative ethics, and applied ethics. Metaethics, generally construed, is understood as the area of ethical investigation which concerns the meaning and nature of ethical concepts, and whether we can have any secure knowledge about ethical concerns. Normative Ethics is the area of ethics which is concerned to spell out principles by which human beings can conduct their actions and lives. Applied Ethics relates to specific issues of concern to human beings, such as abortion, the environment.

Prerequisite: Phil or Propositional calculus and quantification theory; consistency and completeness theorems; goedal incompleteness results and their philosophical significance; introduction to basic concepts of model theory; problems of formulation of arguments in philosophy and the sciences. Prerequisite: Phil A philosophical examination of the history and cultural connections of the science of genetics and its precursors.

Genetics is a phenomenon of the twentieth century, thus, it is new. Yet, its implications and dilemmas are enmeshed in old traditions and stereotypes, and the dynamics of cultural change. To explore the breadth of philosophical repercussions of genetics, this course will draw on science, technology, medicine, and their histories, but will also range wider to include aspects of the social history of racism and class relations, changing attitudes toward sexuality, the intricacies of big business and international cooperation, and other such diverse areas.

  • 9 Tales of Space and Time.
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Ethics is traditionally a branch of Philosophy. What role do and should emotions play in ethical thinking? Can science tell us whether utilitarian or deontological ethics is better? Radicalization into violent extremism. Promoting ethical behavior. Logical paradoxes and their effects on foundations of mathematics. Status of mathematical entities and nature of mathematical truths.

Formalist, logicist, and intuitionist positions. This course examines the notions of intelligence, cognition, reasoning, consciousness, and mental content as they appear in the philosophical views and empirical studies of animals in individual and social contexts. Some philosophers have argued that animals have no mental lives Descartes, Dennett or that they are non-rational and thereby not of moral concern Kant. Others Montaigne, Griffin have suggested that animals have rich mental lives, rudimentary rationality, and even linguistic ability.

Bentham and Singer among others have suggested that moral status is not contingent upon rationality or intelligence. Cognitive ethology strives to scientifically measure the extent and limits of the mental lives of animals. We will review scientific findings that suggest striking likenesses and intriguing differences in the apparent thought processes of humans and animals, and ask whether the research techniques that brought us these results are fully adequate to measuring such unobservable entities as conscious experience and thought.

Techniques of measurement range from naturalistic observation, to the processing of vocalizations, to memory and problem solving tasks, and the imaging of brain processes through fMRI scans, etc.

Students will face the challenges and rewards of practicing these techniques and reworking philosophical theories in the service component of the course. Students will participate in veterinary or shelter work to provide needed animal care while studying animal behavior using cognitive ethological methods. Explanation of views of a major philosopher or philosophical school, a significant philosophical topic, or a topic that relates to philosophy and another discipline.

Module description

Prereq: Phil or Prereq: PHIL The aim of this course is to explore a wide range of ethical issues relating to the decision to take a nation to war, how wars are conducted, and efforts to establish order in the wake of a conflict. Topics include the Just War tradition, pacifism, humanitarian intervention, moral repair and the establishment of a just peace, conduct of war, warrior codes, warrior transitions, and civil-military relations. We will be examining the ethics of war from the perspectives of both states and individuals.

War is a crucible that strips those caught up in its horrors down to their fundamental selves inspiring acts of both inhuman depravity and seemingly superhuman nobility.

Ecology and Society: Philosophical Issues in Ecology: Recent Trends and Future Directions

This course is presented in a seminar format with lively discussions centering on contemporary readings in military ethics from texts and journals. In this course, we study the way in which the environment is a matter of politics. Our approach is philosophical, examining the concept of politics in light of how societies shape their environment on Earth. We want to know not only what environmental politics is, but what we should do about it. Students from any major are welcome, without prerequisite. Husserl redefines philosophy as phenomenology, a science that seeks knowledge of the essential forms of consciousness and those of objects as intended through them.

Science, Ethics And Society: Philosophical Issues (Module)

We will examine the philosophical rationale of phenomenology, its epistemological and ontological assumptions and implications, its theses about human consciousness. We will spend the majority of time analyzing the arguments or positions as they are found in primary texts in translation. Students will read texts out loud in class and will be expected to comment on the passage or passages. Students are expected to use outside sources in their preparations. The goal of the class is to continue to learn how to make and write arguments against or in support of the various positions using the prasangika reductlo ad absurdum method.

The papers are rigorous ones and require the student to present the position and then to posit arguments against it, finding internal incoherences.

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This is a writing-intensive class. Students will continue to learn how to write as per the genre of Indian philosophy. Open to all students no prerequisites interested in happiness, this course provides an intellectually rigorous introduction to the philosophy and science of happiness. Philosophy is often considered a dry academic subject; however the best philosophy is personal and transforms our view of the world.